What is strabismus?

Strabismus, commonly known as “crossed eyes” or “lazy eye,” is a visual disorder where both eyes do not properly align and work together to focus on an object. In individuals with strabismus, one eye may be misaligned in relation to the other, pointing in a different direction. This condition can affect people of all ages, from infants to adults.


There are several types of strabismus, including:

  1. Esotropia: One eye turns inward towards the nose.
  2. Exotropia: One eye turns outward away from the nose.
  3. Hypertropia: One eye turns upward.
  4. Hypotropia: One eye turns downward.

Strabismus can be caused by various factors, including problems with the muscles controlling eye movement, neurological issues, or a combination of both. Some common causes include:

  1. Muscle Imbalance: When the eye muscles do not work together, one eye may drift out of alignment.
  2. Vision Problems: Uncorrected refractive errors like farsightedness or nearsightedness can contribute to strabismus.
  3. Neurological Conditions: Conditions affecting the brain, nerves, or the areas responsible for eye movement control can lead to strabismus.
  4. Hereditary Factors: Strabismus can run in families, suggesting a genetic predisposition.
  5. Injury or Trauma: Injury to the eye or eye muscles can cause misalignment.

Strabismus can have various effects on vision and daily life. Some common symptoms include:

  1. Double Vision: The brain receives conflicting visual inputs from the misaligned eyes, leading to double vision.
  2. Poor Depth Perception: Misaligned eyes may struggle to work together, affecting depth perception.
  3. Eye Strain and Fatigue: Strabismus can cause discomfort and strain, leading to headaches and fatigue.
  4. Social and Emotional Impact: Strabismus may impact self-esteem and social interactions, especially in children.

Treatment for strabismus depends on its severity and underlying cause. It may include:

  1. Eyeglasses: Corrective lenses can help manage certain types of strabismus caused by refractive errors.
  2. Vision Therapy: Eye exercises and activities can help improve eye coordination and alignment.
  3. Patching: Covering the stronger eye with an eye patch can encourage the weaker eye to strengthen.
  4. Surgery: In some cases, surgical procedures to adjust the eye muscles’ alignment may be necessary.
  5. Botox Injections: Botox can be used to weaken specific eye muscles and improve alignment temporarily.

If you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of strabismus, it’s important to consult an eye care professional for a comprehensive eye examination. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help manage the condition effectively and improve visual outcomes.


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